Key takeaways from Eximo Marketing’s Public Speaking Workshop

Public speaking is something a lot of us fear, and as we found out at the public workshop we recently attended, it is a skill that can be honed. We share our key takeaways from Eximo Marketing’s Public Speaking Workshop to ensure your next speaking engagement runs smoothly…notepads at the ready…


When putting together a talk or presentation, there are various ways to structure it and this can depend on the content, the setting and who you are presenting to. Essentially you want to take the audience on a journey with you and tell a story. There are various ways of doing this:

1). The Hero’s Story – think X Factor – this consists of an introduction, emotional pull (in the instance of X Factor, the contestant’s story) which builds momentum and draws the audience in. This then leads to the climax, their performance, by which time you’re so engaged in the story, you’re rooting for them. The audience has been taken on a journey, albeit quite a dramatic one but the essence of this method is what’s important

2). The Story Arc – to summarise, this is when you start building momentum until you reach the crux of your point then you descend. You can repeat multiple times throughout a talk.

3). S.T.A.R. – this approach stands for Situation, Task, Action, Result… so you describe the situation providing context for the audience, then explain the task you had to complete and the action you took to do this. Then explain the outcome of the action(s) you took – the result!


If you’re including slides in your talk/presentation, there are a few key points to consider:

  • Slides should act as visual cues for you, but they shouldn’t be used as a crutch, so know your content
  • Simplify! Don’t add lots of unnecessary wording to your slides, it will distract the audience and they’ve come to see you speak, and not to read your slides after all.
  • Highlight! Again, this ties in with the last point. Highlight the key points. Don’t overcomplicate your slides. Say what you need to say in the shortest amount of words.


When delivering a talk, it can be easy to race through it so it’s over quickly, but this shows that you’re nervous. When this happens, our voices can also go quite high pitched so remember ‘low and slow.’ If you can master this, it will help ensure that you don’t rush, which in turn will put the audience at ease with your calm delivery. Remember it’s ok to pause and to be deliberate with your speaking,

It’s not just your voice that’s important when public speaking, what you’re doing with your body is also crucial to how successful your delivery is. Move around, don’t stay rigid in the same spot. Tie movement in with how you tell a story for example hand gestures add to what you’re saying but remember not to point at people.

Eye contact is also something to consider. Move your gaze around, make eye contact with people. If you’re presenting to a big audience, look at people at the front then move your gaze around the room, to the back, middle and so forth but try not to focus on one person!


Whilst some people are born natural orators, even the most experienced practice, practice and practice their craft. Practice really does make perfect in this instance, so stand in front of your mirror and go over your presentation so that you are familiar with your content, what you want to say, and it will become second nature soon enough.


What is a meme?

The word meme comes from the Greek mimēma, which means ‘that which is imitated’. In the modern sense it has generally come to mean an image with text or video which is shared from person to person. It may change slightly, but the core image will remain the same, hence the name. Memes are nearly always humorous and tap into a cultural trend. Nonsensical and silly? Yes. But worthy of dismissal in the world of marketing? Perhaps not.

What is meme marketing?

Meme marketing is the process in which brands utilise memes to promote their products or services. It involves using an existing meme or trending image and adding humorous text. Brands can adapt a meme already in circulation, or devise a new meme based on a current trend. Naturally, the latter is always going to be more difficult, but both are viable forms of meme marketing.

Does meme marketing work?

Using memes has both advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, the viral-ability aspect of the strategy is a risk: once your meme is out there, there’s no getting it back, and due to the nature of memes, it is easy to manipulate. This lack of control or ownership can cause companies to stay away from meme marketing entirely. Others may worry about the tacky nature of memes; does they look too much like spam to get your brand the results you’re looking for?

However, meme marketing has many advantages. Creating a meme is an extremely cheap and easy process, with your audience doing most of the work for you.  It can increase brand exposure on a tsunamic level, all from one simple image. This is due to the relatability of memes and the ease at which people can share them with their peers – if it relates to them or they find it amusing, they’ll share it, and that’s more exposure for you based on minimal effort.

Examples of meme marketing

One of the main issues with meme marketing is that the brands making them don’t completely understand the humour they are sharing, and it comes across quite like your dad making jokes about youth culture. This naturally comes across incredibly cringey and doesn’t do anything for the brand on social media. McDonald’s made a mistake like this back in 2018:

For those unfamiliar with the original meme, the idea is that you use a picture of someone with a ridiculous or extravagant haircut, and muse at what they could have asked for at the barbers in order to get that particular trim:

Clearly, McDonald’s have not understood the original meme or have tried too hard to twist it into a promotional tweet, leading to a confusing and cringey example of meme marketing. The lesson to be learned here is to do your research on the meme you’re using, and only go ahead with it if it is relevant to your brand and product.

An example of a company who’ve utilised meme marketing successfully are Bark Box, a dog treat and toys monthly subscription service. Taking into account their demographic, they have an Instagram account and twitter handle which are almost entirely dominated by memes. From comparing celebrities to dogs and collaborating with dog Instagram images and editing them with simple, relatable text for their audience, they have hit the nail on the head. It costs them next to nothing to do, with no sophisticated graphics or celebrity endorsements, just some text and some dog pictures.

It replicates content BarkBox knows its demographic are already following and watching online, reeling in the organic engagement whilst promoting their brand passively. The simplistic and cheap graphics which had the potential to look tacky and spammy present a realism and relatability to the audience that is wholly appreciated. This tactic has led them to have 1.6 million followers on Instagram, which isn’t half bad for a niche 2011 start up from New York City.

Is meme marketing right for my company?

Yes, meme marketing worked for a dog treat subscription service, but would it work for your company? Not necessarily. Although memes can be made and shared by older generations, it is usually something that appeals to a younger demographic, so if you’re selling mobility scooters, it’s probably not the right road for you to go down.

It’s also a light-hearted and usually humorous marketing strategy, so it must be used very carefully. It may be a process of aligning the meme usage to your brand, or doing your research, as McDonald’s failed to do in the above example. However, it may also be that meme marketing isn’t right for your brand at all. For example, within the pharmaceutical industry where integrity and sincerity are imperative to a successful brand, memes would not give the intended impression and would most likely be detrimental to sales. For many companies, trust is ultimately more important than relatability, and for these companies, there are plenty of other ways to market products. But if you’re selling lawn mowers, and want to be a cut above the rest? By all memes, give it a go.


Most of us have at at some point either attended, or run a bad brainstorm. Often, they go a little like this…

  • Someone sends out a meeting invite for a brainstorm for X client with no other info
  • Everyone gathers in a rather uninspiring meeting room
  • The person leading gives a short overview of what the client wants and expects instant ideas
  • Everyone sits staring at each other awkwardly in silence hoping someone has a brainwave
  • More silence
  • Someone comes up with an idea and expects everyone else to fall in love with it
  • Discussion about that idea, maybe a few more thrown in
  • One person continues to talk about why their idea is the one
  • Nobody else really dares say much now
  • The brainstorm ends with, at best, around three to five ideas

From feedback in training sessions that I’ve delivered the above scenario is pretty common and the reason a lot of people dread brainstorms. So, it’s good to know I’m not alone.

In my opinion there’s a few things that cause brainstorms to be so painful:

  1. No brief – there hasn’t been a proper brief circulated in advance therefore how can we expect anyone to have an instant idea
  2. People aren’t really in the room – most people when they enter the room are still thinking about the email they were sending, or what they’re going to eat for lunch, or the argument they had with their partner the night before. Whatever it is, they’re not really focussed on the brainstorm.
  3. People feel awkward – often people don’t feel comfortable saying ideas out loud as they’re worried they’ll be judged and people won’t like them. Also, if you have any introverts in the team they’re even more likely to not want to shout up ideas in a room full of people.

Because I’ve been in so many bad brainstorms it inspired me to do some research and find a better way, so I thought I’d share some of the techniques we’ve used to improve brainstorms.

As I said, the reason a lot of brainstorms have a painful start is because everyone’s not really in the room, so the first three of these techniques are aimed at actually gaining everyone’s attention and breaking the ice.

Worst idea first

Pretty self-explanatory, essentially everyone has to come up with the worst idea possible for the brand in question. This one’s especially fun as it removes the worry of ‘what if my idea is bad’, as the whole point is to have the worst idea possible. This one also often gets people laughing and joking around which helps to break the tension in the room.

I’ve run this type of session with the client in the room too and they especially enjoy it as so often they’re constricted by ‘our brand could never do that’ whereas this removes that element.

Sometimes we can also flip the bad ideas into good ideas as well.

Figure storming

For this one you put yourself in the mindset of another person, so we’ve done this with the likes of Kanye or Trump, and you have to think of what that person would do if they were in charge of the ideas. Again, this generally throws up comedy ideas and helps to break the ice. It also starts to get people thinking creatively and not just about the usual ideas you’d throw out there.

Other varieties of this technique include teleporting where you think about how you’d come up with ideas if you were in a different place (real or fictional) and time travel where you imagine you’re at a point in the past or future.

Word association

Everyone’s probably played this game before (potentially as part of a certain drinking game). For this you start with a relevant word to the brand/product/service and throw a ball at someone and they have to say the first word that pops into their head when they hear that word, and it continues. You also have someone writing down all the words that people come up with and then study all the words that have been thrown up and see if there’s a pattern or idea that springs from them.


The aim of this is to generate as many questions as possible about the topic/product/service being discussed.

Think of this like when you have a conversation with a child and their response to everything you say is “but why?” Although frustrating, this actually makes you go a lot further exploring something than you originally planned to which is really useful.

Once you get to the end of one line of questions move onto another and at the end review to see whether the questions and answers throw up any interesting ideas. This is especially useful for content ideas.


This is probably the technique that improved our brainstorms the most. The method we use most commonly, Brainwriting 6-3-5, needs six people and each is given a sheet of paper that looks something like the below:

Screenshot of Brainwriting 6-3-5 table
View the template

They are then given five minutes to write down three ideas. The sheet of paper is then passed to the person next to them and they have the option to either develop the ideas already there if they have something to add or write down three new ideas. This continues until you receive your original sheet back.

If you had six people for this then you’ll be left with 108 ideas within just 30 minutes – much better than a standard brainstorm, right?

This can also be done remotely or without getting everyone together if you use a Google Doc that can be sent around the team to save getting everyone together at the same time.

Generally, we’ll then use the remainder of the brainstorm to discuss everyone’s favourite ideas and start to whittle these down into the ones we want to develop further.

Sticky votes

At the end of any brainstorm you’re left with a range of ideas and it can be tough to decide on which are the best to progress and develop further.

One way to do this democratically is to lay all the ideas out and give everyone three stickers/sticky notes which are their votes. They can then go place their votes on their three favourite ideas (if they just love one idea they can put all three on that one or two on one), then once everyone’s done, the ideas with the most votes are the ones that move on to be developed.

So, in summary my top tips for running better brainstorms are:

  1. Send a proper brief in advance
  2. Do something to break the ice at the start
  3. Give everyone the opportunity to contribute in a way they’re comfortable with

I’ll start by saying that I am very interested in anything that helps me to do my job faster or smarter. It’s also worth saying that I think a lot of tools that are described as being powered by AI are in fact simply automation tools. However, since they also help with doing work faster, I’m on board.

My first forays into using AI tools were pretty basic; things like social listening tools that use natural language processing to try to determine sentiment (pretty poorly at the time). But things have advanced since then and my eyes have been opened to a wealth of tools and applications of AI, particularly in journalism right now, that make me excited for future uses.

In my opinion the journalism industry seems far more advanced in its creation and application of AI than the PR industry. For this reason, most of the examples are journalistic applications however I believe, as I’ll come onto, that these also have use-cases for PR professionals.

One of the forces behind the ability for the journalism industry to invest in AI applications, especially within Europe, seems to be Google’s Digital News Innovation Fund (DNI).

The Digital News Innovation Fund (DNI Fund) is a European programme that’s part of the Google News Initiative, an effort to help journalism thrive in the digital age.

The DNI has funded a wealth of really interesting projects, some of which I’ll highlight in more detail. I’ll be honest running through them was a rabbit hole mission that I spent way too long on, so be warned in case the same happens to you!

Current applications

Fighting Fake News

The DNI has funded several projects which are aimed at ‘Battling misinformation’, a couple of interesting ones are below.

Full Fact is the UK’s independent fact checking charity which received two rounds of DNI funding. The first round was to support Full Fact’s automated fact checking abilities allowing them to fact check content at a much larger scale.

The second round is explained by its Head of Automated Fact Checking:

“The project will help us develop a set of standards for sharing fact checks and evaluate automated fact checking to ensure that the systems provide results in a consistently balanced way,” Mevan Babakar

From what I can see Full Fact started out mainly fact checking live broadcasts but now also investigates general news and, since January have announced they will now be fact checking Facebook posts:

Here’s a couple of examples:


Other projects that fall into the ‘Battling misinformation’ category are around verifying user generated content (UGC).

The Associated Press (AP) received a grant for the project AP Verify which utilises AI to verify UGC based on various criteria to see whether it is legitimate content worth including in a story or there are factors at play to indicate otherwise.

Verifeye Media is a similar project that received funding, journalists can upload photo or video content straight from their smartphone and receive a confidence indicator for whether the content is safe to use or requires further review.

Local news resurgence

Several DNI funded projects are aimed at helping journalists to tell hyper-localised stories, one example is Reporters and Data and Robots (RADAR).

RADAR is a partnership between the Press Association (PA) and Urbs Media that enables regional news titles access to stories jointly written by journalists and AI.

This uses open source data to generate localised stories; a journalist will write a template of the article and the AI uses natural language generation (NLG) to then generate individually localised stories based on the template and data set. RADAR enables around 250 stories to be generated from just one journalist-written template.

Driving efficiency

A non-DNI funded project this time, The Washington Post created its AI technology Heliograf which has been dubbed ‘robot reporting’ and writes short form articles and social media messages mainly reporting on sports. Examples of these can be seen here:

The Washington Post are certainly not alone in this though. The AP in the UK developed Wordsmith which has hugely increased their output vs manual efforts:

On another track, a DNI funded project Trint uses AI to transcribe and translate audio or video content. Some of the main benefits of this are:

  • Saving time – it can transcribe a 45-minute audio clip in less time than it takes to play
  • Saving money – it charges a flat fee far lower than most manual transcription services
  • The output is all time-coded meaning you can search within the transcript to find the right parts of the video/audio, click to listen to them, and edit as you wish.

This I see being hugely useful not just for journalists but also for PRs and all other content creators who are working with audio and video. Especially relevant with the explosion of Podcast popularity now.

Finally, news.bridge takes this even further than Trint allowing you not just to transcribe and translate your audio, but it’s AI will also produce voiceovers, subtitles and summaries of transcriptions and translate all of this into target languages for you.

Finding and making the news

Most of the examples in the previous section were utilising AI to produce fairly formulaic content based on data you find yourself and feed in, as opposed to necessarily helping you to find the story. However, there are some examples of publishers that using AI to do exactly that.

Reuters launched Lynx Insight which aims to suggest story ideas to journalists as oppose to write the copy, although it can also help with that. These snippets are taken from a Wired article:

Forbes announced a similar tool last year; Bertie:

BuzzFeed also notably used machine learning to create a story identifying spy planes:

Building bots

Its not just writing the content or suggesting topics that AI is being used for though, it’s also helping to create different formats for content.

The BBC’s bot builder has enabled journalists to transform long form content into more engaging and easier to consume content through in-article chat bots.

It’s not just chatbots either though, Chinese media outlet Xinhua went a step further and has created AI news anchors!

A few days ago, they now introduced the world’s first female AI news anchor as well:

Democratic accountability

As well as the tools I mentioned aimed at battling misinformation which can often be linked to politics and public bodies, the DNI has also funded projects such as Alveteli which has a suite of tools aimed at holding public representatives to account. Examples include:

What’s Google’s play?

If you’ve got to this point you might be thinking; what’s in it for Google? They’re investing all this money in all these projects so there must be something in it for them. As nice as it would be to think they are doing it simply to help the journalism industry, I believe they may benefit in other ways. A couple of examples being:


As mentioned, a number of the projects involve video, which Google is very keen to push for YouTube’s sake and as such also has GNI YouTube Innovation funding with 87 projects funded across 23 countries. The obvious benefit for Google here being the more content being uploaded to YouTube, the more views they get and the more advertising revenue they can generate.


Google has been heavily pushing its assistant and voice search over the last couple of years and a lot of the DNI projects also support this.

The projects that centre around translation and creation of localised voiceovers are certainly beneficial in this area.

The place for humans

As you’ll see from most of the projects I’ve mentioned, these are not centred around AI replacing human jobs, but complementing the jobs and reducing the repetitive or unnecessary tasks humans were previously performing that can be performed by machines to free up human time to be better spent.

There are certainly some areas that desperately require human monitoring and/or intervention for the foreseeable future.


The first of those would be ethics and I think we have been able to see there are some staggering issues around AI and ethics. We definitely still need humans to decide the ethical considerations of the applications of this technology.

One of the most important elements of this is the transparency to consumers of how and when AI is being used.

Last year you may remember this story where a flawed algorithm led the UK government to deport thousands of students incorrectly. The reason for this was a BBC Panorama study that looked at how many students were being able to get study visas illegally, essentially by getting other people to fake their English proficiency test. The government then employed a firm to review these applications and identify ‘invalid’ results which they then served deportation notices to. The problem was the way in which the firm reviewed the test was using voice recognition software which was flawed and incorrectly marked tests as invalid (i.e. faked) when they weren’t. This meant thousands of students were incorrectly marked for deportation when they should not have been and sparked mass legal action against the government.

Editing and refining

As you can see from a lot of the examples that I’ve shown, the content that’s being generated using NLG is fairly basic. Human journalists are still needed for anything more in-depth than simply reporting on facts or figures.

So, the AI might be coming up with the story ideas; analysing data to provide the angles that are interesting, but it still takes a real human journalist and to craft that into a story that is compelling and engaging to read. I think even if we see some of these practices coming over into the PR world, again, it will still take a PR person to really find the right hook and to make it appeal to humans.

The Future?

So, what does the future hold for AI in the context of journalism and PR?

Better AI writing assistants

I think the AI writing assistants that we’ve already seen will continue to improve and I think we’ll start to see them coming through in other CMS, not just in journalism. I see assistants in CMS helping with things like; finding multimedia to insert, finding sources and facts that we might want to include in content, being able to click a button to factcheck in the background etc.  I think that’s going to continue and we’re just going to see more and more features being included in CMS platforms to help people produce content more efficiently.

Improving accessibility

I think we’re also going to see AI helping to improve accessibility in a lot more ways; I mean that both in terms of making content more accessible for people with disabilities and impairments, but also helping people in different countries to access content.

I think we’ll start to see not just recommendations from CMS/content systems on how to improve accessibility, but the ability for the system to just improve it for you.

I’ve mentioned the projects around automated transcription and translation services and I see that as really exciting for PRs and Content Marketers to have the ability to increase the reach of any piece of content or campaign much wider than previously possible due to budget constraints.

Fighting fake news and filter bubbles

I think the fighting of fake news and filter bubbles is only going to become more and more and important and relevant in the years to come. Especially as we have potentially a general election coming up in the next year or so and certainly the US presidential election in 2020. All the work combating fake news and filter bubbles is going to become more and more important and we’re seeing a lot of investment going into those areas, so I think it’s safe to say that we’ll see some exciting developments happening there.

Creating stories from data

I think we’re going to see a lot more tools being created and applications of AI that help us to find and create stories. Rather than us finding datasets ourselves and feeding them through and it suggesting stories, I think we’ll see AI being used to profile audiences better, understand what they’re interested in and then serve up potential stories based on that, without us having to specify and feed it data sets.

Consumer scepticism

I also think that we’re going to see a lot more consumer scepticism though, I think things like the Cambridge Analytica scandal last year and all the data breaches and scandals that have can you come out of the news with Facebook and Google have made people very wary of how they share their data. So, I think we’ll see people being a lot more reluctant to share their data which may in some cases slow down AI development and applications if the data is not available to feed the machine.

More data training/hiring

Finally, I think one of the other things it’s going to be so important for the future is going to be more training for journalists and PR professionals on how to find data and transform it into interesting visualisations and stories.

I also think in terms of journalism, but also the PR industry, we’ll see more hires of people that have the capabilities to use data and to develop AI technologies and data visualisation to support the roles that they’re doing.  I think that’s one area where PR is certainly lacking behind journalism right now.

What about PR?

The CIPR has the AI in PR panel who do some really great research into AI applications within PR. They conducted a great study looking at how AI is currently being used in PR and predicting what that my look like in five years.

The two diagrams below are taken from that report looking at the skills needed in PR and mapping against how AI can help.

As someone working in PR a lot of what I’ll be doing is keeping an eye on the tools that are being created and used by journalists and seeing if any of those come out of beta and are available to the PR industry too as there’ll be a lot of helpful cases for those.

For example, having technology that can help us to understand our client’s target audience, the stories that they’ll be interested in and the tools to gather information to generate those stories and angles is hugely valuable as a PR.

If the tools that currently exist aren’t made available more widely, I think we’re at a stage where those operating in the PR industry will have to start creating them themselves. We now know the technology is ready and capable to doing what we need it to do so replicating that for PRs will be key.

The Google DNI publishes a list of open source projects that can utilised so that is a really great place to start for developing our own tools.

This post ended up very long so congratulations if you actually made it to the end! I’d love to hear your thoughts on how you’re currently seeing AI being used in journalism and PR and where you think the future’s going too.

Imagine pushing a big, heavy flywheel from a standing start: it takes a lot of effort just to get it moving and a strong, sustained effort to keep it accelerating as momentum builds.

Considering the flywheel concept in business, there are clearly quite a few ways a company can make it spin faster. Better marketing, a bigger sales team or cheaper products can all give a business more momentum. In the book ‘The Everything Store’ Brad Stone describes how the flywheel concept can be used to model Amazon’s early growth:

“Bezos and his lieutenants sketched their own virtuous cycle, which they believed powered their business. It went something like this: lower prices led to more customer visits, with increased sales attracting more commission-paying third-party sellers to the site. That allowed Amazon to make efficiencies around the website’s fulfilment centres and servers and this enabled further price reductions. Feed any part of this flywheel, they reasoned, and it should accelerate the loop.”

In an agency – especially one in a fast-moving environment like search or digital marketing – momentum feels paramount. An agency with momentum wins exciting clients who have thousands of fans; clients that deserve to rank on Google and have budgets large enough to afford amazing campaigns and a fantastic website. Larger budgets and big brand clients attract top staff who can deliver amazing results for those clients, who then renew their contracts, refer their friends and enjoy winning awards at glitzy events.

An agency without momentum is like a flywheel with a brake on: everything is much harder.  The exciting clients go to the other agencies and you are stuck with the low-budget clients that nobody has ever heard of and who don’t deserve to rank. Top-tier marketers don’t want to work with small brands, so they don’t apply for jobs at your agency, and any good staff you have are quickly poached by the agency down the road with the big brand clients and higher salaries.

Ups and downs are normal and every business experiences fluctuations in momentum. We experienced the importance of momentum at Branded3, where happy clients led to happy staff, which in turn led to happy clients. We knew that if part of the chain broke, the whole thing could fall apart.

At connective3 we are doing a real-life experiment to see what happens when you launch a new business with no clients in a crowded market when all your major competitors have a 10+year head start. Plenty of businesses do the same every day, but the remarkable thing is we are doing it having owned one of those large agencies with momentum and a flywheel spinning round at seemingly unstoppable speeds. We were that agency but now here we are, sitting on the carpet on day one with no chairs, no desks and no Wi-Fi, waiting for the phone to ring.

Clearly we have some finance behind the business and a great team on board, but our flywheel is hardly moving (we are four days old as I write this). Gone are the thousands of blog subscribers and the dozens of quality inbound leads we used to get every week. Our pipeline has to be rebuilt from scratch and the site doesn’t even rank for its own name yet.

However, we believe that momentum is not the most important thing in running an agency in the long term. The single most important thing is getting the right people on the bus.

While the old footballing cliché that says “form is temporary, class is permanent” feels a bit arrogant, the whole “people are vectors” analogy resonates with us. Remember the concept in maths of a vector having both direction and magnitude? This applies to people too. So a group of people pulling in different directions are far less effective than if they all pull in the same direction. At some point in a business, your momentum will be slowed by everybody suddenly pulling in different directions.

At connective3 we’re insulating against the usual peaks and troughs. Our founding team have skin in the game and have been pulling in the same direction together for nearly 10 years. We leave our egos at the door and worry more about keeping clients happy than looking good in front of the boss. We believe that being built to last is the most effective way to run an agency, and that over the long term – even from a standing start – an agency that is built to last will excel.